Get e-book Managing on Purpose: A Framework for Guiding Success in the Workplace

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These resources focus on the identification and management of inappropriate behaviour at the local level through to more serious allegations of misconduct that are managed under ACTPS Enterprise Agreements. For example:. Smith act. This text will need to remain until such time asthe new Resolving workplace issues documents are finalised.

Skip to content. Accessibility Contact Us. Home Employment Framework. Inclusion Programs and Information We strive for an inclusive workplace, because we know it fosters a culture and environment where employees better engage through creative and innovative ideas and processes. Capability, Performance and Workforce Planning Workforce Planning and Performance and Capability development is about improving existing workplace operations and creating an ACTPS workforce which is fit for the future.

So far the results have been positive: In Alaska earned J. In addition, the training has had the unanticipated effect of improving relations among staff members. And we need you in order to win. Simple principles help people select reasonable options in their day-to-day work. The advice is eminently well founded but has proved hard to implement, because it leaves some big questions unanswered: How should companies translate purpose into action? How can they encourage initiative and de-emphasize monitoring without causing chaos?

What, exactly, is a framework, and how does it function? I, too, have identified three core elements. This conveys how the company makes sense of the world and brings stakeholders together in a common cause. The purpose gives direction and meaning to everything the company and its employees do. Employees often adopt it as their own reason to work for the organization. To develop a purpose and articulate it in a way that would resonate with workers, Alaska put together a team of two dozen high-performing and widely respected frontline employees and eight managers.

On its own, a statement like that is pretty lofty. Alaska Airlines explicitly ranked its four standards of service in priority order, with safety outweighing caring, which outweighed delivery, which outweighed presentation. A principle should apply to more than one situation—it should facilitate decisions in an array of contexts. Better to describe behaviors that convey respect, such as encouraging people to express their opinions freely or even rewarding them for doing so.

Principles can also be constructed out of business choices, such as infusing innovation efforts with design thinking or focusing on the needs of international or middle-market customers. Principles, then, can include positive guidelines for action as well as limits on behavior. And ideally, they, along with purpose and priorities, will be iteratively defined and tweaked, with feedback from people at all levels of the organization.

Executives occasionally came in to receive briefings and provide feedback. But the team insisted on the importance of the guideline, so it stayed in. When I meet with business leaders, sometimes an analogy helps me explain how purpose, priorities, and principles enable freedom.

Chapter 13 - Improving the organization and management of extension

I point to an intrepid group of improv actors known as the Improvised Shakespeare Company. Similarly, in a business environment the purpose provides the motivation, the priorities and principles provide the knowledge, and together the three elements support superior judgment in the moment. Trusting employees to implement the framework generally works well. Its employees have considerable freedom to voice their ideas and concerns, whether by engaging in honest conversation, participating in degree reviews, or proposing new initiatives. The more Warbles something gets, the stronger the indication of priority.

But in practice the rankings function as preferences, not direct orders. Engineers may disregard the vote-based priorities and instead work on projects that best fit their skills, interests, and views regarding what will benefit the company most.

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Of course, a critical part of implementation is learning from missteps. At numerous companies freedom frameworks or proto-frameworks—that is, less-developed ones have fallen apart. Why does that happen? The short answer is that a framework, like freedom itself, is inherently fragile. It requires maintenance. So one major risk is neglect. Or—probably even more common—the leaders who established it may turn around and deliberately take away some employee freedoms for one of these reasons:.

Sometimes freedom-fueled performance is followed by a period of inflexibility, as was the case at Nokia. In the s CEO Kari Kairamo had downplayed traditional formalities and processes in favor of speed and agility, thereby propelling the company into the electronics and telecom markets that would eventually yield its greatest wins.

Yet a little over a decade after the company reached its peak, in the late s, Nokia underwent a shift toward bureaucracy. My Harvard Business School colleagues Juan Alcacer and Tarun Khanna found in their research that as the company rapidly grew, it was unable to adapt to all the distinct challenges in different global markets.

In many instances headquarters ignored or responded too slowly to requests from subsidiaries. Nokia ceded market share to both low- and high-end competing products. Like freedom itself, a framework is inherently fragile. In some organizations, rules for how to do the work assume too much importance, and people toil away without autonomy or any understanding of why. Given these sources of fragility, companies need to constantly monitor employee voices and look for signs of declining agency.

The impact of the changes is analyzed for impact on cost and schedule, and with appropriate approvals, changes are made to the project execution plan. The material found in this chapter would be similar to material found in a good operational management text.

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Although any of the quality management techniques designed to make incremental improvement to work processes can be applied to a project work process, the character of a project unique and relatively short in duration makes small improvements less attractive on projects. Rework on projects, as with manufacturing operations, increases the cost of the product or service and often increases the time needed to complete the reworked activities. Because of the duration constraints of a project, the development of the appropriate skills, materials, and work processes early in the project is critical to project success.

On more complex projects, time is allocated to developing a plan to understand and develop the appropriate levels of skills and work processes. Project management organizations that execute several similar types of projects may find process improvement tools useful in identifying and improving the baseline processes used on their projects. Process improvement tools may also be helpful in identifying cost and schedule improvement opportunities. Opportunities for improvement must be found quickly to influence project performance. The investment in time and resources to find improvements is greatest during the early stages of the project, when the project is in the planning stages.

During later project stages, as pressures to meet project schedule goals increase, the culture of the project is less conducive to making changes in work processes. Another opportunity for applying process improvement tools is on projects that have repetitive processes. A housing contractor that is building several identical houses may benefit from evaluating work processes in the first few houses to explore the opportunities available to improve the work processes. Staffing the project with the right skills, at the right place, and at the right time is an important responsibility of the project management team.

The project usually has two types of team members: functional managers and process managers. The functional managers and team focus on the technology of the project. On a construction project, the functional managers would include the engineering manager and construction superintendents.

On a training project, the functional manager would include the professional trainers; on an information technology project, the software development managers would be functional managers. The project management team also includes project process managers. The project controls team would include process managers who have expertise in estimating, cost tracking, planning, and scheduling.

The project manager needs functional and process expertise to plan and execute a successful project. Because projects are temporary, the staffing plan for a project typically reflects both the long-term goals of skilled team members needed for the project and short-term commitment that reflects the nature of the project. Exact start and end dates for team members are often negotiated to best meet the needs of individuals and the project.

The staffing plan is also determined by the different phases of the project. Team members needed in the early or conceptual phases of the project are often not needed during the later phases or project closeout phases. Each phase has staffing requirements, and the staffing of a complex project requires detailed planning to have the right skills, at the right place, at the right time. Typically a core project management team is dedicated to the project from start-up to closeout. This core team would include members of the project management team: project manager, project controls, project procurement, and key members of the function management or experts in the technology of the project.

Although longer projects may experience more team turnover than shorter projects, it is important on all projects to have team members who can provide continuity through the project phases. For example, on a large commercial building project, the civil engineering team that designs the site work where the building will be constructed would make their largest contribution during the early phases of the design.

The civil engineering lead would bring on different civil engineering specialties as they were needed. As the civil engineering work is completed and the structural engineering is well underway, a large portion of the civil engineers would be released from the project. The functional managers, the engineering manager, and civil engineering lead would provide expertise during the entire length of the project, addressing technical questions that may arise and addressing change requests.

Project team members can be assigned to the project from a number of different sources. The organization that charters the project can assign talented managers and staff from functional units within the organization, contract with individuals or agencies to staff positions on the project, temporarily hire staff for the project, or use any combination of these staffing options.

This staffing approach allows the project manager to create the project organizational culture. Some project cultures are more structured and detail oriented, and some are less structured with less formal roles and communication requirements. The type of culture the project manager creates depends greatly on the type of project. Completing a complex project successfully requires teamwork, and teamwork requires good communication among team members. Communicating can be divided into two categories: synchronous and asynchronous. If all the parties to the communication are taking part in the exchange at the same time, the communication is synchronous.

A telephone conference call is an example of synchronous communication. When the participants are not interacting at the same time, the communication is asynchronous. The letter a at the beginning of the word means not. Communications technologies require a variety of compatible devices, software, and service providers, and communication with a global virtual team can involve many different time zones. Establishing effective communications requires a communications plan.

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Risk exists on all projects. The role of the project management team is to understand the kinds and levels of risks on the project and then to develop and implement plans to mitigate these risks. Risk represents the likelihood that an event will happen during the life of the project that will negatively affect the achievement of project goals. The type and amount of risk varies by industry type, complexity, and phase of the project.

The project risk plan will also reflect the risk profile of the project manager and key stakeholders. People have different comfort levels with risk, and some members of the project team will be more risk averse than others. The first step in developing a risk management plan involves identifying potential project risks.

Some risks are easy to identify, such as the potential for a damaging storm in the Caribbean, and some are less obvious. Many industries or companies have risk checklists developed from past experience. The Construction Industry Institute published a item risk checklist that provides examples and areas of project risks.

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No risk checklist will include all potential risks. The value of a checklist is the stimulation of discussion and thought about the potential risks on a project. The project team analyzes the identified risks and estimates the likelihood of the risks occurring. The team then estimates the potential impact on project goals if the event does occur.

The outcome from this process is a prioritized list of estimated project risks with a value that represents the likelihood of occurrence and the potential impact on the project. The project team then develops a risk mitigation plan that reduces the likelihood of an event occurring or reduces the impact on the project if the event does occur. The risk management plan is integrated into the project execution plan, and mitigation activities are assigned to the appropriate project team member. The likelihood that all the potential events identified in the risk analysis would occur is extremely rare.

The likelihood that one or more events will happen is high. The project risk plan reflects the risk profile of the project and balances the investment of the mitigation against the benefit for the project. One of the more common risk mitigation approaches is the use of contingency. Contingency is funds set aside by the project team to address unforeseen events. Projects with a high-risk profile will typically have a large contingency budget. If the team knows which activities have the highest risk, contingency can be allocated to activities with the highest risk.

When risks are less identifiable to specific activities, contingency is identified in a separate line item. The plan includes periodic risk-plan reviews during the life of the project. The risk review evaluates the effectiveness of the current plan and explores possible risks not identified in earlier sessions.

The procurement effort on projects varies widely and depends on the type of project. Often the client organization will provide procurement services on less complex projects.

In this case, the project team identifies the materials, equipment, and supplies needed by the project and provides product specifications and a detailed delivery schedule. When the procurement department of the parent organization provides procurement services, a liaison from the project can help the procurement team better understand the unique requirements of the project and the time-sensitive or critical items of the project schedule. On larger, more complex projects, personnel are dedicated to procuring and managing the equipment, supplies, and materials needed by the project.

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Because of the temporary nature of projects, equipment, supplies, and materials are procured as part of the product of the project or for the execution of the project. For example, the bricks procured for a construction project would be procured for the product of the project, and the mortar mixer would be equipment procured for the execution of the project work. At the end of the project, equipment bought or rented for the execution of the work of the project are sold, returned to rental organizations, or disposed of some other way.